Single senza pace (Universale economica) (Italian Edition)

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As a result, I wish to suggest, Italian Neorealism, which rose to prominence in the first years after the Second World War, was in a significant sense imbued with and realised through a profound engagement with the work of Boccaccio. Situating the critical discourse surrounding Boccaccio within the post-war Italian context can therefore serve to shed unexpected light on both the cultural affir- mation of Neorealism and the disciplinary configuration of Italian medieval studies. The Middle Ages, he stressed, had given birth to modern Europe, safeguarding classical culture while incubating the vernacular cultures.

Roncaglia, that is to say, sought to vedere il disfacimento della struttura imperiale con gli occhi di quelle masse rurali-militari delle province, che, da tale struttura economicamente e socialmente comprese, assistettero passi- vamente o addirittura cooperarono attivamente alla sua dissoluzione.

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Roncaglia argued instead for a radical revision of the systems of power that governed the modern world, taking the Middle Ages as precedent and paradigm for that revision. Several years later, in , a luminary in the field of Italian literary historiography, Giuseppe Petronio, presented an alternative analogy between the contemporary Ital- ian case and a supposed precedent in the Italian past.

Petronio insisted that after the war a similar re-occupation and re-invigoration of the old order could be set in motion without the need for revolution ; a new culture could grow out of the old. Ivi, p. En-1 visioning an evolutionary solution to the twentieth-century crisis, Petronio drew on his characteristic interpretation of the Middle Ages in order to provide a model for a progressive rather than radical social and cultural agenda.

Rather, they speak to an ideological clash between conservative, moderate, and revolution- ary responses to Fascism, which characterised Italian politics in the first decade after the Second World War. There were many who understood Fascism as a horrible but brief parenthesis, in the famous formulation of Benedetto Croce, and who thus insisted that Italy should return to the pre-Fascist past in order to find its footing in the future.

Although investigations of the reception of Dante or Petrarch in the age of Neorealism remain to be written, therefore, intuitively one can suggest that they would likely reflect both implicitly and explicitly the major preoccupations of the day, revealing additional subtleties and complexities in the situation of Italian culture and society after the war. Petronio had made the same argument several years earlier. David D. Boccaccio was the realist who seemed determined to see the world as it is, rather than as outmoded authorities with outsized rhetoric insisted it should be.

Boccaccio was thus the model for a new literature capable of representing and reclaiming Ital- ian society in the aftermath of the war. It was Boccaccio, Calamandrei claimed, who demonstrat- ed incontrovertibly that literature could shape consciousness without deforming it, making sense of a period of historical transition and overcoming historical confusion through the shaping force of narrative. For evidence, Calamandrei looked to Boccaccio. Faced with turmoil and upheaval, he asserted, Boccaccio had created a new order through narrative.

Per questo gli italiani, prima degli altri si misero a raccontare.

Italian Academies and Their Networks, 1525–1700

Piazzesi and Bilenchi had both argued that by prematurely narrating the events of the day, writers were liable to increase rather than alleviate the post- war confusion. By no means, therefore, should they attempt to represent their situ- ation before the facts had become clear. They could not and should not hope to synthesize or even sufficiently to analyse the complexities of the moment. An author forsakes her very reason for writing if she neglects to discern the significance of events, abandoning her charge and failing her readers.

Compared to the work of St.

Interviste , edited by Luca Baranelli, Fiesole, Cadmo, , pp. Idem, La ricerca della perfezione, in his Le parole della memoria. Understood as a moment rather than a movement, a heterogeneous but transformational cultural constellation, Neorealism evades definition even as it demands attention.

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C, cit. As a result, the very language with which Neorealism was discussed and debat- ed was inflected with medievalism. There is reason to believe, therefore, that the establishment of cronaca as an autonomous form of rep- resentation shared by literature and cinema in the age of Neorealism drew both explicitly and implicitly upon a medieval precedent. This was certainly the case for one of the most consistent and preeminent pro- moters of post-war cronaca, Vasco Pratolini, who in two novels, Cronaca fa- miliare and Cronache di poveri amanti, as well as in several films and a series of insightful essays, developed a notion of cronaca that was attuned to the priorities and polemics of the age of Neorealism while remaining faithful to an unmistaka- ble medieval model.

For Pratolini, a modern cronaca based on the model of medieval cronache was the ideal medium by which to arrive at that histori- cal understanding. And Vigorelli was hardly alone in reaching this conclusion.

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One consequence, it appears, was that competing interpretations of Boccaccio played a significant role in the discussions surrounding cronaca, one of the central critical concepts in the reception of realism in Italy after the Second World War. References to Boccaccio likewise punctuated the literary conversations in Italy after the war.

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Elio Vittorini included Boccaccio among his most important influences, alongside mostly modern authors : Joyce, Proust, Kaf ka, Faulkner, Dickens, Melville. After the war, the Decameron came to be analysed as the foundational text of Ital- ian literary realism by a generation of academics working at precisely the moment when realism was being hailed as the necessary ethical and aesthetic objective for post-Fascist cinema and literature.

Cronache in due tempi, Milano, Mondadori, , pp. Yet Mimesis was not translated into Italian until , a decade after it was first published in Switzer- land ; it seems unlikely that his study could have attained the authority necessary to have redirected Italian scholarship on the Decameron so fundamentally before an Italian edition had been produced. Il Trecento, Milano, Vallardi, , pp.

This point is well illustrated by the case of Natalino Sapegno who, like many of his academic contemporaries, intervened widely and perceptively in the cultural de- bates in post-war Italy even as he carried on his pioneering work on the Middle Ages. Indeed, after his time in the anti-Fascist Resistance, where he had joined a partisan group made up in part of his students, including Mario Alicata, Carlo Salinari, and version.